# U6a1-64 – using spss software, data analysis and application – follow

**Unit 6 Study 1 – Readings**

Use your IBM SPSS Statistics Step by Step text to complete the following:

• Read Chapter 10, “Bivariate Correlation.” This reading addresses the following topics:

◦ Interpreting correlations.

◦ Linear versus curvilinear relationships.

◦ Causality.

◦ SPSS instructions for calculating correlations.

◦ Generating SPSS output.

**Unit 6 Assignment 1 – Correlations**

See the Resources area for links to resources that you will use for this assignment:

1. You will complete this assignment using the Data Analysis and Application (DAA) Template.

2. Read the SPSS Data Analysis Report Guidelines for a more complete understanding of the DAA Template and how to format and organize your assignment.

3. Refer to IBM SPSS Step-By-Step Guide: Correlations for additional information on using SPSS for this assignment.

4. If necessary, review the Copy/Export Output Instructions to refresh your memory on how to perform these tasks. As with your previous two assignments, your submission should be in narrative format with supporting statistical output (table and graphs) integrated into the narrative in the appropriate

places (not all at the end of the document).

You will analyze the following variables in the grades.sav data set:

• gender

• gpa

• total

• final

Step 1: Write Section 1 of the DAA.

• Provide the context of the grades.sav data set.

• Include a definition of the specified variables and corresponding scales of measurement.

• Indicate the type of correlation for each X, Y pair (Pearson’s r, Spearman’s r, point-biserial r, et cetera).

• Specify the sample size of the data set.

Step 2: Write Section 2 of the DAA.

• Test the assumptions of correlation for gpa and final.

• Paste the SPSS histogram output for each variable and discuss your visual interpretations.

• Paste SPSS descriptives output showing skewness and kurtosis values and interpret them.

• Paste SPSS scatter plot output with “gpa” set to the horizontal axis and “final” set to the vertical axis.

Conduct a visual inspection of the scatter plot to analyze other assumptions of correlation.

• Summarize whether or not the assumptions of correlation are met.

Step 3: Write Section 3 of the DAA.

• Specify a research question related to gpa and final.

• Articulate the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.

• Specify your alpha level.

Step 4: Write Section 4 of the DAA.

• Paste the SPSS output of the intercorrelation matrix for all specified variables.

◦ First, report the lowest magnitude correlation in the intercorrelation matrix, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, p value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.

◦ Second, report the highest magnitude correlation in the intercorrelation matrix, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, p value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size.

Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.

◦ Third, report the correlation between gpa and final, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, p value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size. ◦ Analyze the correlation in terms of the null hypothesis.

Step 5: Write Section 5 of the DAA.

• Discuss the implications of this correlation as it relates to the research question.

• Conclude with an analysis of the strengths and limitations of correlational analysis.

Submit your DAA Template as an attached Word document in the assignment area.

Resources

Correlations Scoring Guide.

• Applies the appropriate SPSS procedures to check assumptions and calculate the correlations in an exemplary manner.

• Provides exemplary context for the data set, including a definition of required variables and scales of measurement.

• Evaluates the assumptions of correlation.

• Articulates a research question, null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, and alpha level in an exemplary manner.

• Evaluates the correlation output.

• Generates an exemplary conclusion that includes strengths and limitations of correlation.

• Without exception, communicates in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations for members in the identified field of study.

DAA Template. – see attached

SPSS Data Analysis Report Guidelines. – see below

For the SPSS data analysis report assignment, you will use the Data Analysis and Application (DAA) Template with the five sections described below. As shown in the IBM SPSS step-by-step guides, label all tables and graphs in a manner consistent with University APA Style and Format guidelines. Citations, if needed, should be included in the text and references included in a reference section at the end of the report. The organization of the report should include the following five sections:

Section 1: Data File Description (One Paragraph)

1. Describe the context of the data set. Cite a previous description if the same data set is used from a previous assignment. To increase the formal tone of the DAA, avoid first-person perspective “I.” For example, do not write, “I ran a scatter plot shown in Figure 1.” Instead, write, “Figure 1 shows. . . .”

2. Specify the variables used in this DAA and the scale of measurement of each variable.

3. Specify sample size (N).

Section 2: Testing Assumptions (Multiple Paragraphs)

1. Articulate the assumptions of the statistical test.

2. Paste SPSS output that tests those assumptions and interpret them. Properly embed SPSS output where appropriate. Do not string all output together at the beginning of the section. In other words, interpretations of figures and tables should be near (that is, immediately above or below) where the output appears. Format figures and tables per APA formatting. Refer to the examples in the IBM SPSS step-by-step guides.

3. Summarize whether or not the assumptions are met. If assumptions are not met, discuss how to ameliorate violations of the assumptions.

Section 3: Research Question, Hypotheses, and Alpha Level (One Paragraph)

1. Articulate a research question relevant to the statistical test.

2. Articulate the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis for the research question.

3. Specify the alpha level (.05 unless otherwise specified).

Section 4: Interpretation (Multiple Paragraphs)

1. Paste SPSS output for an inferential statistic and report it. Properly embed SPSS output where appropriate.

Do not string all output together at the beginning of the section. In other words, interpretations of figures and tables should be near (that is, immediately above or below) where the output appears. Format figures and tables per APA formatting.

2. Report the test statistics. For guidance, refer to the “Results” examples at the end of the appropriate chapter of your Warner text.

3. Interpret statistical results against the null hypothesis.

Section 5: Conclusion (Two Paragraphs)

1. Provide a brief summary (one paragraph) of the DAA conclusions.

2. Analyze strengths and limitations of the statistical test.

IBM SPSS Step-by-Step Guide: Correlations.

Copy/Export Output Instructions. see below SPSS output can be selectively copied and pasted into Word by using the Copy command:

1. Click on the SPSS output in the Viewer window.

2. Right-click for options.

3. Click the Copy command.

4. Paste the output into a Microsoft Word document.

The Copy command will preserve the formatting of the SPSS tables and charts when pasting into Microsoft Word.

An alternative method is to use the Export command:

1. Click on the SPSS output in the Viewer window.

2. Right-click for options.

3. Click the Export command.

4. Save the file as Word/RTF (.doc) to your computer.

5. Open the .doc file.

APA Style and Format.